Thursday, November 20, 2008

chemicalbonding-igcse notes

Elements forming compounds with chemical bonds


Electron transfer and ionic bondsAtoms have no charge.
A charged particle is called an ion.
If an atom loses an electron, it becomes a positively charged (+) ion.
An ion that is positively charged is known as a cation. If an atom gains an electron, it becomes a negatively charged (-) ion.
An ion that is negatively is known as an anion. The negative and positive ions attract each other to form an ionic bond.


Complete the gaps in the text below:_____ have no charge. A charged particle is called an ___. If an atom loses an ________, it becomes a positively charged (+) ion. An ion that is positively charged is known as a ______. If an atom gains an electron, it becomes a negatively charged (-) ion. An ___ that is negatively is known as an anion. The negative and positive ions attract each other to form an _____ bond.


The formation of sodium and chloride ion

















Draw atoms and ions for lithium, potassium, fluorine, magnesium, oxygen, sulfur and aluminiuM

Draw diagrams of ionic bonding in LiF, KF, LiCl, NaF, MgCl2, AlF3, MgO, MgS, Na2O and Al2O3.


Physical properties of giant ionic structuresIonic bonds form when metal and non-metal atoms join. A substance with ionic bonding has an ionic structure. Each ion is firmly held in place by strong ionic bonds so they have high melting and boiling points. If melted, charged ions become free to carry an electric current. The ions also become free if dissolved in water so solutions are also electrolytes. The solids are insulators because the ions are not free to move and cannot carry a current. Sodium chloride NaCl, and magnesium oxide MgO are good examples.








Pick out the substances which are (a) ionic (b) have covalent bonds (c) have high melting points (d) conduct electricity when molten: sodium chloride, sulfur dioxide, magnesium oxide, iron fluoride, carbon dioxide, NaBr, H2O, NH3, Al2O3, KCl.


Covalent bonds and electron sharingNon-metal atoms join using covalent bonds. When a covalent bond is formed, atoms share their electrons. The atoms then have full shells. One covalent bond needs one shared electron from each atom. Each atom involved has to make enough covalent bonds to fill up its outer shell. Sharing electrons is called covalent bonding. Below is a diagram to show hydrogen gas (H2).


Dot and cross diagrams

Draw atoms of F, H, O, N and C.Draw a dot and cross diagram for fluorine F2, hydrogen fluoride HF, water H2O, ammonia NH3, methane CH4, oxygen O2, nitrogen N2, ethene C2H4.






Physical properties of simple molecular substancesSimple Molecular Substances have low melting and boiling points and most are gases or liquids at room temperature. This is because of weak forces between the molecules. Molecular substances do not conduct electricity, because there are no ions. E.g. water.Draw diagrams to show how the molecular structures for the following might look: fluorine F2, hydrogen fluoride HF, water H2O, ammonia NH3, methane CH4, oxygen O2, nitrogen N2





Giant structures with covalent bondsIn giant covalent structures all the atoms are bonded to each other by strong covalent bonds so they have very high melting and boiling points. They do not usually conduct electricity even if in the liquid state. Diamond and graphite are two examples, which are made from carbon atoms. These two different types of the same element are called allotropes.



Diamond: Each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds in a very rigid giant covalent structure.
Diamond:


Physical properties of giant covalent structuresGiant molecular structures have very high melting points because all atoms are held firmly in place by strong covalent bonds. In graphite each carbon atom is held in place by three strong covalent bonds which gives graphite a high melting point. In diamond 4 strong covalent bonds holds each atom in place. This also gives diamond a very high melting point. The four bonds make diamond very hard. Graphite has weak bonds between layers so the layers slip over each other making graphite soft.
They do not usually conduct electricity even when molten because there are no charged partic
les to carry the current. There are free electrons between layers in graphite so it conducts electricity.




Explaining differences between propertiesSimple molecular substances like water have weak bonds between molecules so melt at low temperatures because little energy is needed to separate the molecules. Giant covalent structures like diamond have strong covalent bonds holding each atom in place. They melt at high temperatures because a lot of energy is needed to break these strong bonds.

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chemistry notes / igcse-gcse- Olevel

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